Some technological aspects of the Soviet computing industry.

by R. N. Hainsworth

Publisher: University of Birmingham in Birmingham

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 556
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Edition Notes

Thesis (M.Soc.Sc.) - University of Birmingham, Centre for Russian and East European Studies.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13796197M

  That line, from a Hudson Institute report about state of Soviet computing, is a pretty blunt but accurate take on the industry, highlighting the challenges that faced both the country and. There are now two parts to the Soviet computing industry which correspond to the old and fledgling market systems: the state-run sector, based on the government ministries and the Academy of Sciences, where almost all Soviet digital computing has resided since its origins in the late s; and an emerging "mixed sector " of private, state.   The US was ahead in some areas, the Soviet were ahead in others. The US DOD actually asked themselves this question in as well. The Americans projected that based on their current knowledge of Soviet technology they had a unquestionable lead. As in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, when Peter the Great tried to Westernize Russia, the Soviet government resorted to the tried and tested ways of importing technology, including the translation of technical and scientific books, the hiring of foreign experts and skilled workers, and the purchase of machines and processes.

This report examines the impact of the Soviet Academy of Sciences on the development of technology in the Soviet Union, finding that the future of Soviet technology depends significantly on the Academy and that severe problems stemming from its nature and its relationship with Soviet industry encumber the Academy's ability to serve Soviet technology. Question: “- If the technology was so far behind, how it still powers reliable workhorses like the Soyuz rocket and modules?” Answers: * Soyuz has been updated to use modern computers recently * Even if it would not be updated, why do you assume a. the Soviet Union’s technological lag and subsequent catastrophic decline is the incompatibility between the logic of statism and the demands of 21st century informationalization. Missing the Information Revolution That the Soviet Union would lose the technological race .   For example, a recent report on the Soviet industry by the National Academy of Sciences points out that fewer than 10 percent of all Soviet enterprises have in-house management information systems.

A very interest approach to the Chernobyl disaster and the Soviet nuclear industry generally. I particularly liked it as a case study of the planning process in the later Soviet era. I would like to have seen the author flesh out more some of the ideas presented, such as the socio-technological aspects. Industry, The Economist ( ). While firms such as Intel, Microsoft, Compaq, IBM, Cisco, AOL, and attract much of the attention in the IT marketplace, the IT industries touch almost all aspects of the modern economy. For example, traditional manufacturing firms, such as General Motors, make significant use of. The Soviet physical chemist Semenov laid the theoretical foundations for the theory of explosions and nuclear processes. Soviet chemists seem to be concentrating their activity in the more technological fields of plastics, metal manufacture, insecticides, dyes and medicinals. Today's Russia can hardly be regarded as a world leaders of the computer industry, yet at the beginning of the computer era, the Soviet Union competed on an equal footing with the world's leading.

Some technological aspects of the Soviet computing industry. by R. N. Hainsworth Download PDF EPUB FB2

An evaluation is given to high-performance computing in the former Soviet Union. The authors describe how since the beginning of the modern electronic digital computing era in the mids, a.

This book contains a collection of thoroughly refereed papers derived from the First IFIP WG Conference on Soviet and Russian Computing, held in Petrozavodsk, Russia, in July The 32 revised papers were carefully selected from numerous submissions; many of them were translated from Russian.

They reflect much of the shining history of computing activities within the former Soviet. This book contains a collection of thoroughly refereed papers derived from the First IFIP WG Conference on Soviet and Russian Computing, held in Petrozavodsk, Russia, in July The 32 revised papers were carefully selected from numerous submissions; many of.

ISBN: OCLC Number: Description: xxxii, pages: illustrations ; 26 cm: Contents: Some approaches to the comparative assessment of Soviet technology: its level and rate of development / Ronald Amann --Technological level of Soviet industry: an overview / R.W.

Davies --Iron and steel / Julian Cooper --Machine tools / M.J. Berry, Julian Cooper --High. Pioneers of Soviet Computing/B.N. Malinovsky iii electronic computer field that have advanced the state of the art in computing. For the first time in English, these Soviet computer pioneers are portrayed as people in this book, along with some.

of the Soviet Union's inferior technological level. century inventions and some civil hardware. Besides, the books. a: 1). For a more detailed account of Soviet computing.

Within the Soviet Union the situation in the field of computing was rather complicated: a great deal of secrecy and contention split Soviet computing between the military and academia. Here we survey some aspects of the Soviet computer software world and examine how computers are applied i n several of the fields that enjoy a high level of official support.

Section 2 concentrates on Soviet software. One main conclusion to emerge is that Soviet systems software in widespread use, i.e., operating systems and programming. The Soviet computer industry continued to stagnate through the s.

As personal computers spread to offices and industries in the United States and most Western countries, the Soviet Union failed to keep up. Bythere were overcomputers in the country.

In the Soviet Union had abouttrained programmers, but they did not have enough equipment to be productive. The industry was Some technological aspects of the Soviet computing industry. book concentrated after on the production of capital goods through metallurgy, machine manufacture, and chemical Soviet terminology, goods were known as capital.

[citation needed] This emphasis was based on the perceived necessity for very fast industrialization and modernization of the Soviet the death of Joseph Stalin inconsumer goods. industry over time meant an increase in the number and type of potential entrants into any particular segment.

However, the supply story turns out to be incomplete in three distinct ways. First, demanders in the different segments value different aspects of technology and supply.

The distinction. The USSR was starting to disintegrate – and decades of stealing Western technology instead of growing a native Soviet computing industry was partly responsible.

1 2. The Soviet computer industry underwent rapid development until the beginning of the s, when the government effectively curtailed innovation in this area. Some of. Partly technical history and partly a memoir, it is the only existing first person account of the birth of modern computing in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.

Abstract:Boris N. Malinovsky’s Pioneers of Soviet Computing is the English language version of his earlier Russian language The History of Computing in Personalities (in Russian 3/5(3). The book covers several subjects: iron and steel industry, machine tools, high voltage electrical power transmission, chemical industry, industrial process control, computer technology, military technology, rocketry, and technological level and quality of machine tools and passenger cars.

acterized by a massive transfer of foreign computer technology. The Soviet computing industry is now much less isolated than it was dur- ing the i96os, although its interfaces with the outside world are still narrowly defined.

It would appear that the Soviets are reasonably content with the present "closer but still at a distance" relationship. Book Overview. Altmetric Badge. Chapter 12 Establishing a Computer Industry in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus Altmetric Badge. Chapter 13 Some Aspects on Computing Means Development Philosophy Altmetric Badge.

Chapter 14 The Algorithmic “Computer” Altmetric Badge. Also acts as a guide to professional literature in the field of Soviet cybernetic studies encompassing the first three computer generations.

Bibliographies, data bases, technical specification charts and other reference materials augment three annotated timelines which are run in series: Soviet Cybernetic History, History of Computing, and Author: George Martin Weinberger.

The State of Soviet Science. This book is a compilation of essay that discuss the different aspects of science disciplines in the USSR.

While the majority of the topics is on natural sciences, Soviet philosophy and psychology studies are also discussed. The State of Soviet Science. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, Soviet Science and.

Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency ofa productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of an aggregate output to a single input or an aggregate input used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input, typically over a specific period of time. Most common example is the (aggregate) labour productivity measure, e.g., such as GDP per worker.

Soviet and Post-Soviet Technology: Nuclear Industry Sources in English: Chernousenko, V.M. Chernobyl: Insight from the Inside (Berlin and New York: Springer, ). Friedman, Sharon M.

"Chernobyl Coverage: How the US Media Treated the Nuclear Industry," Public Understanding of Science 1 (): Gould, Peter. A very interest approach to the Chernobyl disaster and the Soviet nuclear industry generally. I particularly liked it as a case study of the planning process in the later Soviet era.

I would like to have seen the author flesh out more some of the ideas presented, such as the socio-technological s: 5.

As computing evolves to higher system levels, so its design also changes, from technical to socio-technical design. Levels can clarify the often confusing terms of computing. In Figurea technology is any tool that people build to use (footnote 6), e.g.

a spear is a technology. Technology is designed and built by engineers. ALDEN IN THE EUROPE OF THE MIDDLE AGES, craftsmen with varying levels of skill manufactured carts one at a the best of these carts provided little more than basic transportation.

Yet in the same cities of Europe, at the same time, master masons and builders created incredible stone cathedrals, using principles of design and construction that were breathtaking for the. arbitrary Stalinist system, and not merely aspects of the Cold War situation'.

12 This paper is devoted to Soviet computing, which provides an inter- esting borderline case between defence-related physics and ideology-laden biology. The early history of Soviet computing aptly illustrates both the.

Soviet critics ignored, or possibly were unaware of, Wiener’s openly pacifist stand, which he had taken after Hiroshima, and his refusal to participate in military research.

The evil robots of capitalism: This cartoon published in a popular technology magazine, Tekhnika–Molodezhi, mocks the American cybernetic dystopia. The history of computing hardware in the Soviet Bloc is somewhat different from that of the Western a result of the CoCom embargo, computers could not be imported on a large scale from Western Bloc.

Soviet Bloc manufacturers created copies of Western designs based on intelligence gathering and reverse engineering. This redevelopment led to some incompatibilities with International. enterprise-level computing in the soviet economy (sov c ) keywords: soviet analysis, soviet economic analysis, soviet technological analysis created date.

While some forms of technology may have made positive changes in the world, there is evidence for the negative effects of technology and its overuse, as well. The most notable wars of the decade include: The Cold War (–). Soviet–Afghan War (–) – a war fought between the Soviet Union and the Islamist Mujahideen Resistance in Afghanistan.

The mujahideen found other support from a variety of sources including the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States (see Operation Cyclone), as well as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan. Search the world's most comprehensive index of full-text books.

My library.This is the list of Soviet computer systems. The Russian abbreviation EVM (ЭВМ), present in some of the names below, means “electronic computing machine” .On the contrary, from the first days of Soviet digital computing efforts in the late s, the development of Soviet machines was marked by a rivalry between different groups of specialists.

Similar to the Anglo-American debates on the "firsts" embroiling the epithets of "digital," "programmable," and "fully operational," a controversy.